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There are different types of change an can organization face. Business process re-engineering BPR is a business management strategy first pioneered in the early s that focuses on the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization. BPR aims to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service, cut operational costs, and become world-class competitors. BPR helps companies radically restructure their organizations by focusing on their business processes from the ground up.

A business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome. Re-engineering emphasizes a holistic focus on business objectives and how processes relate to them, encouraging full-scale recreation of processes rather than iterative optimization of sub-processes. Business process re-engineering is also known as business process redesign, business transformation, and business process change management.

Incremental change is a method of introducing many small, gradual and often unplanned changes to a project instead of a few large, rapid and extensively planned changes. Wikipedia illustrates the concept by building an encyclopedia bit by bit. Another good example of incremental change is a manufacturing company making hundreds of small components that go into a larger product, like a car. Improving the manufacturing process of each of these integral components one at a time to cut costs and improve process efficiency overall is incremental change.

Technological change TC describes the overall process of invention, innovation, and diffusion of technology or processes. The term is synonymous with technological development, technological achievement, and technological progress. In essence, TC is the invention of a technology or a process , the continuous process of improving a technology which often makes it cheaper , and its diffusion throughout industry or society.

In short, technological change is based on both better and more technology integrated into the framework of existing operational processes. Inside forces include strategic and human resource changes, while outside forces include macroeconomic and technological change. Identify the internal and external pressures for change, which drive organizations to adapt and evolve. Change management is an approach to shifting or transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from their existing state to a desired future state.

Examples of organizational change can include strategic, operational, and technological changes coming from inside or outside the organization. Understanding key internal and external change catalysts is critical to successful change management for organizational leaders. While there are seemingly endless external considerations that can motivate an organization to change, a few common considerations should be constantly monitored.

These include economic factors, competitive dynamics, new technology, globalization, and legislative changes:.


  • Managing Change for Organizations.
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There are many inside forces to keep in mind as well, ranging from employee changes to cultural reform to operational challenges. Understanding where this change is coming from is the first step to timely and appropriate change management. When an organization requires changes to address counterproductive aspects of organizational culture, the process can be daunting. Cultural change is usually necessary to reduce employee turnover, influence employee behavior, make improvements to the company, refocus the company objectives, rescale the organization, provide better customer service, or achieve specific company goals and results.

Prior to launching a cultural change initiative, a company should carry out a needs assessment to examine the existing organizational culture and operations. Careful and objective consideration of what is working and what is not, as well as what is parallel with the broader organizational objectives and what is not, are critical to success here. Areas that need to change can be identified through interviews, focus groups, observation, and other methods of internal and external research. A company must clearly identify the existing culture and then design a change process to implement the desired culture.

Definition of Change Management

The objectives, content, and process of change should be specified as part of the change management plan. Change management processes can benefit from creative marketing to facilitate communication between change audiences and a deep social understanding of leadership styles and group dynamics. To track transformation projects, organizational change management should align group expectations, communicate, integrate teams, and manage and train people.

Retrieved 11 September Harvard Business Review. Organization Science. Systems Thinking Blog. Retrieved 18 April Creating Knowledge Based Organizations. Boston: Idea Group Publishing. Berlin: Springer. Strategic Learning and Knowledge Management. Chichester: Wiley. Knowledge Management Research and Practice.

Knowledge and Process Management. Knowledge Management: Classic and Contemporary Works. MIT Press.

What’s difference between project management and change management?

Kent State University. Archived from the original on June 29, Crown Business Publishers. Journal of Knowledge Management. Organizational Behaviour Fourth Canadian Edition.


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  7. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Prentice Hall. Communications of the AIS. In Borghoff, Uwe M. Information technology for knowledge management. Springer Verlag.

    Managers as Leaders of Change

    University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 19 April Virginia Tech. Archived from the original PDF on 17 December Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. New York: Oxford University Press. Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education. Archived from the original PDF on Knowledge Management for Development Journal. The Learning Organization.


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    In Easterby-Smith, M. Resistance to change is a fundamental organizational problem as all organizations have a degree of general inertia. This is further complicated by the difficulty in quantitatively measuring changes in areas that are generally intangible i. To remedy this, organizations pursuing OD must set clear and measurable objectives prior to committing to a change initiative.

    An important role of the leader is to analyze and assess the effectiveness of this developmental process and motivate the organization to achieve developmental targets. Skip to main content. Organizational Culture and Innovation. Search for:. Managing Change for Organizations Managers as Leaders of Change Leaders are in the unique role of not only designing change initiatives but also enacting and communicating them.

    Learning Objectives Review the strategies leaders must use to lead change effectively. Key Takeaways Key Points Managing change requires more than simple planning; the significant human element of change resistance needs to be addressed to ensure success. Leaders must define change strategy and communicate it effectively to shareholders, empower and support employees, and mitigate resistance to the change initiative. Conner identifies six distinct leadership styles related to change: anti-change, rational, panacea, bolt-on, integrated, and continuous.

    Each leadership style represents a unique set of perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors regarding how organizational disruption should be addressed. Conner also posited that the six leadership styles are related to two different types of organizational change: first-order change and second-order change. Different leadership styles are more effective in different situations. Key Terms attribute : A characteristic or quality of a thing. Types of Organizational Change There are three main categories of change: business process re-engineering, technological change, and incremental change.

    Learning Objectives Differentiate between business process re-engineering, technological change, and incremental change as the three main categories of organizational development. Key Takeaways Key Points Business process re-engineering focuses on the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization.

    Technological change refers to the process of invention, innovation, and diffusion of technology or processes. Incremental change means introducing many small, gradual changes to a project instead of a few large, rapid changes. Key Terms incremental : Occurring over a series of gradual increments, or small steps. Inside and Outside Forces for Organizational Change Inside forces include strategic and human resource changes, while outside forces include macroeconomic and technological change. Learning Objectives Identify the internal and external pressures for change, which drive organizations to adapt and evolve.

    Key Takeaways Key Points Change management is an approach to shifting individuals, teams, and organizations to a desired future state. Examples of organizational change can include strategic, operational, and technological change that can come from inside or outside the organization. Outside forces for change include macroeconomics, technological evolution, globalization, new legislation, and competitive dynamics. Inside forces for change include intrapreneurship, new management and restructuring.